Basics of magnets
What is a Magnet?
Magnets are objects that contain specific elements. They create a magnetic field. Magnets must have at least two poles, north and south. The magnetic field lines exiting at the north end of the magnet and reentering at its south end.
No matter how large a magnet is, it will always have a north or south pole. Researchers have yet to find a monopole magnetic – a magnet that has only one pole.
What is the working principle of magnets?
Many aspects of the science behind magnets are still a mystery. Scientists have now discovered the science behind magnet force. It all starts with matter, which is the physical substance that makes up the universe. Then there are the microscopic Atoms that make up the matter.
Every atom has its nucleus. It is composed of protons as well as neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons that orbit in pairs. This motion creates a small magnetic field. Multiple pairs of electrons moving around the nucleus in opposing directions create a magnetic field. An atom with an odd number electrons (e.g. iron) creates a magnetic field that turns the entire atom into an extremely small magnet.
If a majority of the atoms within an object are tiny magnets it creates a magnetic field that has a north-south pole.
History of Magnets
Magnetic properties were first recorded in records as far back as 600 B.C. The Greeks used “magnet” as a term to describe a stone that attracted iron or other ferrous parts to itself. Magnes, a shepherd who discovered the stone while tending his flock, and the ancient city Magnesia (modern-day Turkey), where many magnetic stones were discovered are other sources of the word.
Mariners used compasses to navigate. A magnet that is allowed to move freely will always point in the same direction north-south when it is free from obstructions. Mariners used to struggle to navigate in cloudy skies, blocking out the sun’s guidance.
Magnets for Everyday Use
There are many uses for magnets in our daily lives. There are many uses for magnets, including push pins and magnetic clips – great for the home, office, and classroom – and heavy-duty retrieving, separating, and welding magnets for manufacturing shops. There are many uses for magnets.
Different types of magnet material
There are five types:
Alnico magnets are made mostly from (Al),(Ni), and (Co), and they are extremely temperature stable. They are also known as bar or red horseshoe magnets.
Ceramic (or ferrite) magnets, made of iron oxide and strontium carbonate, are a popular type of magnet due to their low cost. You can make them in a variety of shapes, including rings, rings, blocks and cylinders. Ceramic magnets are used in a wide range of applications including speakers, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, (Rare earth magnets ), and magnetic assemblies for holding, retrieving, and separating.
High Energy Flexible
These magnets are made from a mixture of strontium and ferrite with polymer bonding. They are most often used in strips. These magnets can be used indoors and outdoors. They are anisotropic (oriented), and are highly resistant to weather and natural elements. High Energy Flexible magnets are available in plain or adhesive form and can be used for permanent applications. They also come at a lower price than other types of magnetic materials.
neodymium magnets (NdFeb NIB, Neo), also called “rare earth magnets”, are made of neodymium and iron as well as boron, boron, and transition metals. These magnets, despite their small size and strength, are some of the strongest magnetic materials available. These magnets need to be handled carefully in order to avoid injury. They can be used in many environments and magnetic assemblies.